What is Chapter 7 bankruptcy & Things you should know

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Learn about Chapter 7 bankruptcy and find out if it's right for you. Our comprehensive guide explains who can file, the means test, and what assets may be at risk. Discover how to navigate the process and get a fresh financial start.

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Have you found yourself struggling to keep up with bills and expenses, feeling like you’re drowning in debt? You’re not alone. Financial difficulties can happen to anyone, and they can leave you feeling stressed, anxious, and overwhelmed. But there’s hope. Chapter 7 bankruptcy can be a path to a fresh financial start. In this guide, we’ll walk you through what Chapter 7 bankruptcy is, who can file for it, and what you need to know to make an informed decision about your future. We understand that this is a difficult time, and we’re here to offer guidance and support. So let’s get started.

What is Chapter 7 Bankruptcy and Who Can File for it

Chapter 7 bankruptcy is a legal process that allows individuals and businesses to eliminate most types of unsecured debt. It’s also known as “liquidation” bankruptcy because the debtor’s non-exempt assets are sold by a court-appointed trustee and the proceeds are used to pay off creditors. In this article, we will discuss the basics of Chapter 7 bankruptcy and who is eligible to file for it.

What are some non-exempt assets for example? 

Non-exempt assets are assets that are not protected by bankruptcy exemptions and can be sold by the bankruptcy trustee to pay off your debts. The specific non-exempt assets vary by state, but they may include:

  • Vacation homes or second properties
  • Valuable collections, such as art or jewelry
  • Luxury items, such as a boat or recreational vehicle
  • Stocks, bonds, and other investments
  • Cash, bank accounts, and other financial assets above a certain amount
  • A second car or other vehicles not necessary for work or medical reasons

It’s important to note that even if you have non-exempt assets, you may still be able to keep them by working with your bankruptcy attorney to develop a repayment plan that satisfies your creditors. Additionally, some states have more generous exemptions that may allow you to protect more of your assets in bankruptcy.

How Does Chapter 7 Bankruptcy Work?

Chapter 7 bankruptcy begins with the debtor filing a petition with the bankruptcy court in their district. The petition will include information about the debtor’s income, expenses, assets, and liabilities. Once the petition is filed, an automatic stay goes into effect, which means that creditors are prohibited from collecting any debts from the debtor.

The court will appoint a trustee to oversee the case, and the trustee will review the debtor’s assets to determine which ones are exempt and which ones can be sold to pay off creditors. The trustee will also hold a meeting of creditors, where the debtor will be asked questions about their financial situation.

If the trustee determines that the debtor has non-exempt assets that can be sold, they will be liquidated and the proceeds will be used to pay off creditors. Any remaining debt will typically be discharged, meaning the debtor is no longer responsible for it.

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Who Can File for Chapter 7 Bankruptcy?

Not everyone is eligible to file for Chapter 7 bankruptcy. To qualify, individuals must pass a means test, which compares their income to the median income in their state. If their income is below the median, they are eligible to file for Chapter 7 bankruptcy. If their income is above the median, they may still be eligible to file, but they will need to meet certain requirements.

In addition to passing the means test, individuals must also meet other eligibility requirements, including:

  • They must not have filed for Chapter 7 bankruptcy in the past eight years.
  • They must not have filed for Chapter 13 bankruptcy in the past six years.
  • They must not have had a bankruptcy petition dismissed for cause within the past 180 days.
  • They must complete credit counseling from an approved agency before filing for bankruptcy.

Businesses can also file for Chapter 7 bankruptcy, but they do not need to pass the means test. Instead, they must meet certain eligibility requirements, including:

  • They must be a business entity, such as a corporation or partnership.
  • They must be unable to pay their debts as they become due.
  • They must not have any reasonable hope of being able to reorganize and pay off their debts.

What is the means test? The means test is a calculation that is used to determine if you qualify for Chapter 7 bankruptcy. It’s used to compare your income to the median income in your state for a household of your size.

If your income is below the median, you automatically pass the means test and are eligible for Chapter 7 bankruptcy. If your income is above the median, you will need to complete additional calculations to determine if you still qualify for Chapter 7. These calculations take into account your expenses and other factors. The means test is typically completed as part of the Chapter 7 bankruptcy filing process, with the assistance of an experienced bankruptcy attorney.

Is Chapter 7 right for me?

While I can’t answer this for everyone here, generally if you’re struggling with overwhelming debt, it’s natural to feel unsure about what your next steps should be. Chapter 7 bankruptcy may be a solution for you, but it’s important to understand that it’s not the right choice for everyone.

To determine if Chapter 7 bankruptcy is right for you, consider the following questions:

  • Are you unable to make minimum payments on your debts?
  • Do you have unsecured debts, such as credit card debt, medical bills, or personal loans?
  • Are you facing wage garnishment, foreclosure, or repossession?
  • Are you willing to liquidate non-exempt assets to pay off your debts?
  • Are you comfortable with the impact that filing for bankruptcy may have on your credit score?

If you answered yes to these questions, Chapter 7 bankruptcy may be a viable option for you. If you still aren’t sure, look at some of our alternative options before filing for bankruptcy here

What Types of Debt are Discharged in Chapter 7 Bankruptcy?

Chapter 7 bankruptcy can eliminate most types of unsecured debt, including:

  • Credit card debt
  • Medical bills
  • Personal loans
  • Payday loans
  • Past-due rent and utility bills
  • Civil court judgments (excluding fraud or intentional torts)

However, there are certain types of debt that cannot be discharged in Chapter 7 bankruptcy, including:

  • Student loans
  • Most tax debts
  • Child support and alimony
  • Debts incurred through fraud or intentional wrongdoing
  • Fines and penalties imposed by government agencies

What Happens to Secured Debt in Chapter 7 Bankruptcy?

Secured debts, such as a mortgage or car loan, are not eliminated in Chapter 7 bankruptcy. The debtor has three options for dealing with secured debt:

  1. Surrender the property: The debtor can give up the property that secures the debt and eliminate any personal liability for the debt.

  2. Reaffirm the debt: The debtor can enter into a reaffirmation agreement with the creditor, which allows them to keep the property and continue making payments on the debt. The debtor remains personally liable for the debt, even after the bankruptcy.

  3. Redeem the property: The debtor can redeem the property by paying the creditor the fair market value of the property in a lump sum. This option is not available for all types of secured debts.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1: Can I keep any of my property in Chapter 7 bankruptcy?

A: Yes, certain types of property are exempt from being sold in Chapter 7 bankruptcy. The specific exemptions vary by state, but they typically include things like a certain amount of equity in a home, a car, and personal property such as clothing and household goods.

Q2: Can I file for Chapter 7 bankruptcy if I’m unemployed?

A: Yes, you can file for Chapter 7 bankruptcy if you’re unemployed. However, you will still need to meet the eligibility requirements, including passing the means test.

Q3: Will filing for Chapter 7 bankruptcy affect my credit score?

A: Yes, filing for Chapter 7 bankruptcy will have a negative impact on your credit score. However, if you’re struggling with debt, your credit score is likely already suffering. Filing for bankruptcy can actually help you rebuild your credit over time by eliminating your debts and allowing you to start fresh.

Q4: How long does Chapter 7 bankruptcy take?

A: The entire Chapter 7 bankruptcy process typically takes three to six months from start to finish.

Q5: Can I file for Chapter 7 bankruptcy more than once?

A: Yes, you can file for Chapter 7 bankruptcy more than once, but there are time limits between filings. If you’ve previously filed for Chapter 7 bankruptcy, you must wait at least eight years before filing again.


Chapter 7 bankruptcy can be a good solution for individuals and businesses struggling with debt. By understanding the basics of Chapter 7 bankruptcy and who is eligible to file for it, you can make an informed decision about whether it’s the right choice for you. Remember, bankruptcy is a serious decision that should not be taken lightly. It’s important to consult with an experienced bankruptcy attorney before making any decisions about your financial future.

Further reading: 

What Is Bankruptcy – A brief overview
When Should I File for Bankruptcy?
Before filing bankruptcy 
What Happens After Filing for Bankruptcy?
Chapter 11 Bankruptcy and Who Can File: A Comprehensive Guide 
Chapter 13 Bankruptcy – Everything you need to know
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